What is an Intrusion Detection System?
An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a network security technology originally built for detecting vulnerability exploits against a target application or computer. Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) extended IDS solutions by adding the ability to block threats in addition to detecting them and has become the dominant deployment option for IDS/IPS technologies. This article will elaborate on the configuration and functions that define the IDS deployment.
An IDS needs only to detect threats and as such is placed out-of-band on the network infrastructure, meaning that it is not in the true real-time communication path between the sender and receiver of information. Rather, IDS solutions will often take advantage of a TAP or SPAN port to analyze a copy of the inline traffic stream (and thus ensuring that IDS does not impact inline network performance).
IDS was originally developed this way because at the time the depth of analysis required for intrusion detection could not be performed at a speed that could keep pace with components on the direct communications path of the network infrastructure.
As explained, the IDS is also a listen-only device. The IDS monitors traffic and reports its results to an administrator, but cannot automatically take action to prevent a detected exploit from taking over the system. Attackers are capable of exploiting vulnerabilities very quickly once they enter the network, rendering the IDS an inadequate deployment for prevention device.
The following table summarizes the differences in technology intrinsic to IPS and the IDS deployment:
What is an Intrusion Prevention Systems?
An Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is a network security/threat prevention technology that examines network traffic flows to detect and prevent vulnerability exploits. Vulnerability exploits usually come in the form of malicious inputs to a target application or service that attackers use to interrupt and gain control of an application or machine. Following a successful exploit, the attacker can disable the target application (resulting in a denial-of-service state), or can potentially access to all the rights and permissions available to the compromised application.
The IPS often sits directly behind the firewall and provides a complementary layer of analysis that negatively selects for dangerous content. Unlike its predecessor the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)—which is a passive system that scans traffic and reports back on threats—the IPS is placed inline (in the direct communication path between source and destination), actively analyzing and taking automated actions on all traffic flows that enter the network. Specifically, these actions include:
Sending an alarm to the administrator (as would be seen in an IDS)
Dropping the malicious packets
Blocking traffic from the source address
Resetting the connection
As an inline security component, the IPS must work efficiently to avoid degrading network performance. It must also work fast because exploits can happen in near real-time. The IPS must also detect and respond accurately, so as to eliminate threats and false positives (legitimate packets misread as threats).
The IPS has a number of detection methods for finding exploits, but signature-based detection and statistical anomaly-based detection are the two dominant mechanisms.
Signature-based detection is based on a dictionary of uniquely identifiable patterns (or signatures) in the code of each exploit. As an exploit is discovered, its signature is recorded and stored in a continuously growing dictionary of signatures. Signature detection for IPS breaks down into two types:
Exploit-facing signatures identify individual exploits by triggering on the unique patterns of a particular exploit attempt. The IPS can identify specific exploits by finding a match with an exploit-facing signature in the traffic stream
Vulnerability-facing signatures are broader signatures that target the underlying vulnerability in the system that is being targeted. These signatures allow networks to be protected from variants of an exploit that may not have been directly observed in the wild, but also raise the risk of false positives.
Statistical anomaly detection takes samples of network traffic at random and compares them to a pre-calculated baseline performance level. When the sample of network traffic activity is outside the parameters of baseline performance, the IPS takes action to handle the situation.
IPS was originally built and released as a standalone device in the mid-2000s. This however, was in the advent of today’s implementations, which are now commonly integrated into Unified Threat Management (UTM) solutions (for small and medium size companies) and next-generation firewalls (at the enterprise level).
Rest Consulting recommending Palo Alto/Cisco for IPS/IDS.